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Reference links

A wide-range of research and evidence have been consulted to formulate the Maths on Toast 5 key principles. 

Reference sources and useful further reading are included below.

Worth noting is the recent ATM response to the 2021 Ofsted Mathematics Research review. This response is an invaluable source of info. It contains many of the links below plus further research links:  




Boaler, J (2016) Mathematical Mindsets: Unleashing Students’ Potential through Creative Math, Inspiring Messages and Innovative Teaching. Jossey-Bass/Wiley: Chappaqua, NY. 


Hawes, Z. & Ansari. D. (2020). What explains the relationship between spatial and mathematical skills? A review of evidence from brain and behavior. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 27, 465-482. 


Chinn, 2009 

Nuffield report, 2019, Devine, Szucs et al: https://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/news/early-intervention-is-key-to-breaking-vicious-circle-of-maths-anxiety 

Hunt et al, 2014, 2017

Morsanyi, 2019

PISA OECD report 2015 and 2018

Unicef report, supported by the Lego Foundation, 2018: Learning Through Play – strengthening learning through play in early childhood education programmes: www.unicef.org/sites/default/files/2018-12/UNICEF-Lego-Foundation-Learning-through-Play.pdf

Recently published (2022) by the Early Childhood Maths Group: ECMG Spatial Reasoning Toolkit: https://earlymaths.org/spatial-reasoning-toolkit/